|The group moves its practice to the Hospital Moinhos de Vento. The Emphysema Treatment Center is officially established by Dr. Hugo de Oliveira, Dr. Amarilio Vieira de Macedo Neto, Dr. Silvia Martins de Oliveira, Dr. Enio do Valle and Dr. Sergio Pinto Ribeiro.
As of 2007, one-way valves are still not available for use in a clinical setting (that is, outside of a clinical trial). Several patients are therefore treated as part of a “compassionate use” or expanded access program. Under this system, a team of physicians contacts the Ministry of Health and files a clinical report showing that the patient’s condition is hopeless and cannot be managed by any available treatment. The Ministry then analyzes the report and authorizes access to drugs or equipment that have yet to receive marketing approval.